图式治疗101:15. 什么是失败图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Failure

The belief that one has failed, will inevitably fail, or is fundamentally inadequate relative to one’s peers in areas of achievement (school, career, sports, etc.). Often involves beliefs that one is stupid, inept, untalented, lower in status, less successful than others, and so forth.

失败图式指的是相信自己一直失败,将来也不可避免地会失败,感到自己在成就(学业、事业、运动等)方面相比同伴都是匮乏的。经常伴有觉得自己是愚蠢的、笨拙的、没有天赋的、低人一等的、不如别人成功的等等。

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图式治疗101:14. 什么是纠结/未发展的自我图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self

Excessive emotional involvement and closeness with one or more significant others (often parents) at the expense of full individuation or normal social development. Often involves the belief that at least one of the enmeshed individuals cannot survive or be happy without the constant support of the other. May also include feelings of being smothered by or fused with others or insufficient individual identity. Often experienced as a feeling of emptiness and foundering, having no direction, or in extreme cases questioning one’s existence.

纠结/未发展的自我图式指的是以完整的个性发展或正常的社会性发展为代价,与一个或多个重要他人(通常是父母)过分亲密、或者与他们有过多的情感卷入。经常伴随着这样一种信念:如果没有重要他人的支持,自己就会无法生存或无法感到快乐。经常伴有感受到与他人融合时的窒息感。或带有不完整的自我认同。经常体验到空虚、失败,没有方向,极端情况下会怀疑自己的存在。

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图式治疗101:13. 什么是对伤害与疾病的易感性图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Vulnerability to Harm or Illness

Belief that one is unable to handle one’s everyday responsibilities in a competent manner, without considerable help from others (e.g., take care of oneself, solve daily problems, exercise good judgment, tackle new tasks, make good decisions). Often presents as helplessness.

对伤害与疾病的易感性图式指的是对于随时可能发生的灾难的夸大的恐惧,担心自己不能够阻止它。这种害怕通常聚焦于以下一种或几种问题:
A. 医学疾病方面的灾难(如心脏病、艾滋病)
B. 情绪方面的灾难(如发疯)
C. 外部方面的灾难(如电梯最弱、被犯罪分子加害、飞机失事、地震)

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图式治疗101:12. 什么是依赖/无能力图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Dependence/Incompetence

Belief that one is unable to handle one’s everyday responsibilities in a competent manner, without considerable help from others (e.g., take care of oneself, solve daily problems, exercise good judgment, tackle new tasks, make good decisions). Often presents as helplessness.

依赖/无能力图式指的是存在如果没有别人的帮助就不能够处理好日常事务的信念(比如照顾自己、解决日常问题、拥有判断能力、处理新任务、做出决定)。经常显得无助。

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图式治疗101:10. 什么是缺陷/羞耻图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Defectiveness/Shame

The feeling that one is defective, bad, unwanted, inferior, or invalid in important respects or that one would be unlovable to significant others if exposed. May involve hypersensitivity to criticism, rejection, and blame; self-consciousness, comparisons, and insecurity around others; or a sense of shame regarding one’s perceived flaws. These flaws may be private (e.g., selfishness, angry impulses, unacceptable sexual desires) or public (e.g., undesirable physical appearance, social awkwardness).

缺陷/羞耻图式指的是感觉自己在重要方面是有缺陷的、糟糕、多余的、差劲的、无用的,或者在重要他人面前是不可爱的。这一图式会带来对于批评、拒绝和责备的过分敏感,以及自我意识强、爱比较、在与他人相处时会觉得不安全,或是因觉察到自己缺点产生的羞耻感。这些缺点可能是私密的,如自私、易生气、可接受范围外的性欲;也可能是社会性的,如对外表不接受、社交时容易尴尬。

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图式治疗101:9. 什么是情感剥夺图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Emotional Deprivation

The expectation that one’s desire for a normal degree of emotional support will not be adequately met by others. The three major forms of deprivation are:
A. Deprivation of Nurturance: Absence of attention, affection, warmth, or com- panionship.
B. Deprivation of Empathy: Absence of understanding, listening, self-disclosure, or mutual sharing of feelings from others.
C. Deprivation of Protection: Absence of strength, direction, or guidance from others.

情感剥夺图式指的是预期自己在合理范围内的情感支持需要不会被他人充分地满足。三种主要的剥夺形式是:
A. 养育剥夺:缺少关注、慈爱、温暖或陪伴
B. 共情剥夺:缺少来自他人的理解、倾听、自我暴露或者相互分享感情
C. 保护剥夺:缺少来自他人的力量、指导、引领

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图式治疗101:8. 什么是不信任/虐待图式

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Mistrust/Abuse

The expectation that others will hurt, abuse, humiliate, cheat, lie, manipulate, or take advantage. Usually involves the perception that the harm is intentional or the result of unjustified and extreme negligence. May include the sense that one always ends up being cheated relative to others or “getting the short end of the stick.”

不信任/虐待图式指的是预期他人会伤害、虐待、羞辱、欺骗、操纵或利用自己。通常会感觉自己受到了故意的伤害、不公正的结果或者极端的忽视。有时也包括感觉到相对于他人而言,自己总是会被欺骗或者吃亏。

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图式治疗101:7. 什么是遗弃/不稳定图式?

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

Abandonment/Instability

The perceived instability or unreliability of those available for support and connection.
Involves the sense that significant others will not be able to continue providing emotional support, connection, strength, or practical protection because they are emotionally unstable and unpredictable (e.g., have angry outbursts), unreliable, or present only erratically; because they will die imminently; or because they will abandon the individual in favor of someone better.

遗弃/不稳定图式指的是觉察到与重要他人之间的联结是不稳定和不可靠的。

拥有这一图式的人,会觉察到重要他人在情感上是不稳定的、不可预知的(比如会突然发怒)、不可靠的,或者只是偶尔出现在自己面前,这些重要他人不能够为自己提供持续的情感支持、情感联结、支持性力量或者切实的保护。他们认为重要他人会突然死亡,或者会为了更好的人离开自己。

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图式治疗101:6. 图式治疗的自助读物

从零开始了解图式治疗(Schema Therapy)

图式理论给了我们一种看待自身和他人的崭新视角。如果你不是一名心理治疗师或心理咨询师,同时,你也希望从图式治疗的理论和实践中有所获益,那么非常推荐你阅读一下以下这本书:

《Reinventing Your Life: The Breakthrough Program to End Negative Behavior and Feel Great Again》

(Plume出版社,1994年5月1日)

本书是杰弗瑞·E·杨博士(Jeffrey E. Young)和珍妮特·S·克洛斯科(Janet S. Klosko)博士为普通大众而写的图式科普读物,认知治疗领域的大牛贝克亲自做序推荐。虽然出版于1994年,但至今仍然是图式治疗领域中的佳作,可以帮助大众更好地借助图式治疗的理念认识自我,通过积极的行为和情绪改变,提升生活的质量。

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